Bhabesh Dutta Assistant Professor and Extension Vegetable Disease Specialist Plant Pathology

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Portrait of Bhabesh Dutta

Academic Background

Ph.D. Plant Pathology, University of Georgia. - 2011

Extension Interests and Current Efforts

My extension program focuses on the management of the multitude of plant diseases that affect over 20 different vegetable crops produced in Georgia. My research efforts focus on Fusarium wilt of watermelon, (Fusarium oxysporumf. sp.niveum), gummy stem blight of watermelon (S. citrulli), bacterial spot of pepper (Xanthomonas euvesicatoria), black rot of cabbage (X. campestris pv. campestris), and a complex of bacterial diseases of onion.  Research efforts include monitoring strains for fungicide resistance and gaining a better understanding on the ecology of bacterial pathogens. This information will be used to develop novel management practices ranging from the use of nanotechnology-formulated pesticides to how best fertilize plants with micronutrients that up-regulate superoxide dismutases and other enzymes associated with the systemic acquired resistance pathway in plants.

Vegetable Blog

Professional experience

2015 (April)-present: Assistant Professor and Vegetable Extension Pathologist, UGA.

2012- 2015: Post-Doctoral Research Associate, Department of Plant Pathology, UGA.

2007-2011: Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Plant Pathology, UGA.

Professional affiliation

Editorial board of Plant Disease Management Report, American Phytopathological Society

American Phytopathological Society

Georgia Association of Plant Pathologists

Southern Division of the American Phytopathological Society

University of Georgia Plant Center

Awards, honors and special recognition:

·       Friends of Southern IPM, Bright Idea award (2019): This program recognizes extraordinary achievement in research, Extension and implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in the southern region of the United States.

·       Excellence in multi-state research award (2018): Awarded by the Western Association of Agricultural Experiment Station Directors to the W-3008 onion pest and disease-working group.

·       Michael J. Bader award for excellence in extension (2018): UGA Tifton campus.

·       Recognized as “40 under 40” (2018) in Fruit and Vegetable Industry by Fruit and Vegetable News.

Funding sources: Specialty crop block grant (GA), USDA-NIFA-SCRI, USDA-NIFA-OREI, USDA-NIFA-Methyl Bromide Transition, USDA-NIFA-SCMSP, USDA-NIFA-CPPM, SARE, Vidalia Onion Committee, Georgia Commodity Commission for Vegetables, National Watermelon Association.

Current members:

Dr. Gaurav Agarwal (Post-doc) (2018-present)

Dr. Dr. Saritha Raman Kavalappara (Post-doc) (2018-present)

Mr. Brendon Myers (PhD student) (2018-present)

Mr. Shaun Stice (PhD student) (2016-present)

Ms. Kasmita Karki (MS student) (2018-present)

Mr. Justin Lanier (MPPPM) (2016-present)

Mr. Michael Foster (Research Professional II)

Mr. Michael Donahoo (Research Professional I)

Dr. Divya Choudhary (Research Technician II)

Mr. Hunt Sanders Jr. (Undergraduate student)

Mr. Louis Canevari (Undergraduate student)

Ms. Katie Winter (Undergraduate student)

Mr. Ross Parker (Undergraduate student)

Recent Publications

Peer reviewed articles:

Gadhave, K, Dutta, B., Coolong, T., and Srinivasan, R. 2019. A non-persistent aphid-transmitted Potyvirus differentially alters the vector and non-vector biology through host plant quality manipulation. Nature Scientific Reports 9:2503.

Dutta, B., Gitaitis, R., Agarwal, G., Coutinho, T., and Langston D. 2018. Pseudomonas coronafaciens sp. nov., a new phytobacterial species diverse from Pseudomonas syringae. PLoS ONE 13(12):e0208271.

Bag, S., Tabassum, A., Brock, J., and Dutta, B. 2019. First report of Tobacco Streak Virus Infecting Summer Squash in Georgia, USA. Plant Disease (in press).

Hajihassani, A., Dutta, B., Jagdale, G., and Subbotin, S. 2018. First report of yellow nutsedge cyst nematode, Heterodera cyperi, in Georgia, U.S.A. Journal of Nematology 50:456-458.

Hajihassani, A., Hamidi, N., Dutta, B, and Tyson, C. 2018. First Report of Stubby Root Nematode, Paratrichodorus minor, on Onion in Georgia, U.S.A. Journal of Nematology 50:453-455.

Jordan, B., Culbreath, A.K., Brock, J., and Dutta, B. 2018. First report of Myrothecium leaf spot caused by Myrothecium roridum on pepper in Georgia. Plant Disease 102:246.

Jordan, B., Culbreath, A.K., Brock, J., Tyson, C., and Dutta, B. 2018. First Report of Anthracnose on Celery caused by Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato in Georgia. Plant Disease 102:8.

Stice, S., Stumpf, S., Gitaitis, R.D., Kvitko, B.H., and Dutta, B. 2018. Pantoea ananatis genetic diversity analysis reveals low core genome diversity and accessory genes correlated with onion pathogenicity. Frontiers in Microbiology https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00184.

Stumpf, S., Kvitko, B., Gitaitis, R., Dutta, B. 2018. Isolation and characterization of novel Pantoea stewartii subsp. indologenes strains exhibiting center rot in onion. Plant Disease 102:727-733.

Neufield, K.N., Keinath, A.P., Gugino, B., McGrath, M.T., Sikora, E.J., Miller, S.A., Ivey, M.L., Langston, D.B., Dutta, B., Keever, T., Sims, A., and Ojiambo, P.S. 2018. Predicting the risk of cucurbit downy mildew in the eastern United States using an integrated aerobiological model. International Journal of Biometeriology 62:655-668.

Dutta, B., Langston, D.B., Luo, X., Carlson, S., Kichler, J., and Gitaitis, R. 2017. A Risk assessment model for bacterial leaf spot (BLS) of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), caused by Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, based on concentrations of macronutrients and micronutrients and micronutrient ratios. Phytopathology 107:1331-1338. (Editor’s pick; October 2017).

Stumpf, S., Gitaitis, R., Coolong, T., Riner, C., and Dutta, B. 2017. Interaction of onion cultivar and growth stages on incidence of Pantoea ananatis bulb infection. Plant Disease. 101:1616-1620. (Editor’s pick; September 2017).

Barman, A., Gadhave, K, Dutta, B., and Srinivasan, R. 2017Plasticity in host utilization by two host-associated lineages of Aphis gossypii Glover. Bulletin Entomological Research. doi:10.1017/S0007485317000852.

Gadhave, K, Dutta, B., Coolong, T., Adkins, S., and Srinivasan, R. 2017First Report of a Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in cucurbits in Georgia, United States. Plant Health Progress. 00:000-000 (in press).

Johnson, W., Dutta, B., Sanders, F.H., and Luo, X. 2017Interactions among cultivation, weeds and a bio-fungicide in organic Vidalia sweet onion. Weed Technology 31:890-896.

Dutta, B., Anderson, F., Smith, S., and Gitaitis, R.D. 2016Epiphytic survival of Pantoea ananatis on Richardia scabra in Georgia. Plant Disease. 101:613-618.

Morris, K., Langston, D.B., Dutta, B., Davis, R.F., Timper, P., Noe, J.P., Dickson, D.W. 2016. Evidence for a disease complex between Pythium aphanidermatum and root-knot nematodes in cucumber. Plant Health Progress 17:200-201.

Dutta, B., Gitaitis, R., Barman, A., Avci, U., Marasigan, K., and Srinivasan, R. 2016. Interactions between Frankliniella fusca and Pantoea ananatis in the center rot epidemic of onion (Allium cepa). Phytopathology 106:956-962.

Dutta, B., Schneider, R.W., Robertson, C.L., and Walcott, R.R. 2016. Embryo localization enhances the survival of Acidovorax citrulli in watermelon seeds. Phytopathology106:330-338.

Dutta, B., Gitaitis, R.D., Smith, S., Searcy, J.V.K., and Langston, D.B. 2016. Pathogen distribution, incubation period and seedling transmission resulting from secondary contamination of pepper seeds with Xanthomonas euvesicatoriaSeed Science and Technology 44:1-10.

Dutta, B., Gitaitis, R.D., Driver, J.E., and Smith, S. 2016. First report of bacterial leaf spot on watermelon caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae in Georgia. Plant Disease 100:518.

Searcy, J.V.K., Smith, S., Gitaitis, R.D., and Dutta, B. 2016. First report of tomato pith necrosis caused by Pseudomonas mediterranea in Georgia. Plant Disease 97:988.

Dutta, B., Ha, Y., Lessl, J.T., Avci, U., Sparks, A.C., Johnson, K.L., and Walcott, R.R. 2015. Pathways of bacterial invasion and watermelon seed infestation by Acidovorax citrulliPlant Pathology 64:537-544.

Dutta, B., Ingram, T., Gitaitis, R.D., Langston, D.B., Brenneman, T., Webster, T.M., and Davis, R.F. 2014. First report of bacterial blight of sugarbeet caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aptata in Georgia, USA. Plant Disease 98:1423.

Dutta, B., Gitaitis, R.D., Smith, S., and Langston, D.B. 2014. Interactions of seedborne bacterial pathogens with host and non-host plants in relation to seed infestation and seedling transmission. PLOS One DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.009921.

Dutta, B., Barman, A. K., Srinivasan, R., Avci, U., Ullman, D.E., Langston, D.B., and Gitaitis, R.D. 2014. Transmission of Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea agglomerans causal agents of center rot of onion (Allium cepa L.) by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) through feces. Phytopathology 104:812-819.

Dutta, B., Gitaitis, R.D., Webster, T.M., Sanders, H., Smith, S., and Langston, D.B. 2014. Distribution and Survival of Pseudomonas sp. on Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and Curly dock (Rumex crispus), in Georgia. Plant Disease 98:660-666.

Dutta, B., Sanders, H., Langston, D.B., Booth, C., Smith, S., and Gitaitis, R.D. 2014. Long-term survival of Acidovorax citrulli in citron melon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) seeds. Plant Pathology 63:1130-1137.

Dutta, B., Gitaitis, R., Sanders, H., Booth, C., Smith, S., and Langston, D.B. 2014. Role of blossom colonization in pepper seed infestation by Xanthomonas euvesicatoriaPhytopathology 104:232-239.

Dutta, B., Block, C.C., Stevenson, K.L., Sanders, F.H., Walcott, R. R., and Gitaitis, R.D. 2013. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds. Seed Science and Technology 41:383-397.

Dutta, B., Gitaitis, R.D., Sanders, F.H., Booth, C., Smith, S., and Langston, D.B. 2013. First report of bacterial leaf spot of pumpkin caused by Xanthomonas cucurbitae, in Georgia, USA. Plant Disease 97:1375.

Parkunan, V., Gitaitis, R. D., Dutta, B., Langston, D. B., and Ji, P. An epidemic of downy mildew caused by Peronospora destructor on Vidalia sweet onions in Georgia in 2012. Online. Plant Health Progress Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2013-0328-01-BR.

Dutta, B., Gitaitis, R.D., Lewis, K.L., and Langston, D.B. 2013. A New Report of Xanthomonas cucurbitae Causing Bacterial Leaf Spot of Watermelon in Georgia, USA. Plant Disease 97:4.

Dutta, B., Gitaitis, R.D., Lewis, K.L., Booth, C., Langston, D.B., Webster, T.M., Riner, C.M., and Edenfield, J.D. 2013. New Report of Lolium multiflorum L. and Rumex crispus L. as resident weed hosts of epiphytic populations of Psuedomonas sp., causal agent of yellow bud in onions in Georgia, U.S.A. New Disease Report 27:18.

Fulmer, A.M., Walls, J.T., Dutta, B., Parkunan, V., Brock, J and Kemerait, R.C. Jr. 2012. First Report of Target Spot Caused by Corynespora cassiicola on Cotton in Georgia. Plant Disease 96:1066.

Dutta, B., Scherm, H., Gitaitis, R.D., and Walcott, R.R.  2012. Acidovorax  citrulli seed inoculum load affects seedling transmission and spread of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon under greenhouse conditions. Plant Disease 96:705-711.

Dutta, B., Avci, U., Hahn, M.G., and Walcott, R.R.  2012. Location of Acidovorax citrulli in infested watermelon seeds is influenced by the pathway of bacterial invasion.  Phytopathology 102:461-468.

Dutta, B., Vernaiz, M.A.C., Castro-Sparks, A.C., Scherm, H., and Walcott, R. R. 2012. Effect of Acidovorax citrulli location in watermelon seeds on detection by seed health testing. Seed Science and Technology 40-309-319.

Bahar, O., Efrat, M., Hadar, E., Dutta, B., Walcott, R.R., and Burdman, S2008.  New subspecies-specific rep-PCR based primers for detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.   Plant Pathology 57: 54–763.

Chapters in Books:

Dutta, B. Cichorii seedling blight, pp 77-78. In: second edition of Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases and Pests. Eds. A. Kenaith, and T. A. Zitter. APS Press. St. Paul, MN.

Dutta, B. Syringae blight and leaf spot, pp 78-79. In: second edition of Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases and Pests. Eds. A. Kenaith, and T. A. Zitter. APS Press., St. Paul, MN.

Dutta, B. Viridiflava white spots, pp 79-80. In: second edition of Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases and Pests. Eds. A. Kenaith, and T. A. Zitter. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. (W = 100%)

Plant Disease Management Reports

Kicklighter, J., Flanders, T., Dutta. B. 2019. Evaluation of fungicides in greenhouse for the management of Alternaria leaf spot in kale, 2018. PDMR 13:V024.

Dutta, B., Foster, M.J., Donahoo, W.M. 2019. Evaluation of fungicides for control of Alternaria leaf blight on carrot (cv. Maverick), Georgia 2017-18. PDMR13:V023.

Dutta, B., Foster, M.J., Donahoo, W.M., Coolong, T., Gay, W and Grant, J. 2018. Evaluation of a pre-plant fumigant and a post-plant fungicide on the control of Fusarium wilt of watermelon in Crisp County, Georgia 2018. PDMR13:V060.

Dutta, B., Riner, C., Edenfield, J., Tyson, C., Tanner, S., Williams, Z., Shirley, A., Earls, C. 2019. Evaluation of onion growth stage directed chemical applications on center rot incidence in onion bulbs in Georgia, 2018. PDMR13:V020.

Dutta, B., Edenfield, J., Tanner, S., Williams, Z., and Riner, C. 2019. Evaluation of fungicides to manage Downy mildew in Toombs County, Georgia, 2018. PDMR 13:V019.

Dutta, B., Foster, M.J., Donahoo, W.M. 2019. Evaluation of fungicides for control of Alternaria leaf blight on carrot (cv. Bolero), Georgia 2017-18. PDMR 13:V079.

Price, T., and Dutta, B. 2019. Evaluation of fungicides for managing gummy stem blight in watermelon, Cook County, Georgia 2018. PDMR 13:V077.

Hollifield, S., Paulk, K., and Dutta, B. 2018. Evaluation of fungicides for managing Phytophthora fruit rot in watermelon, Brooks County, Georgia 2019. PDMR 13:V045.

Dutta, B., Foster, M.J., Donahoo, W.M., Coolong, T., Gay, W and Grant, J. 2018. Evaluation of a pre-plant fumigant and a post-plant fungicide on the control of Fusarium wilt of watermelon in Crisp County, Georgia 2017. PDMR 12:V142.

Dutta, B., Foster, M.J., Donahoo, W.M., Coolong, T., and Riner, C. 2018. Evaluation of a pre-plant fumigant and a post-plant fungicide on the control of Fusarium wilt of watermelon in Toombs County, Georgia 2017. PDMR 12:V141.

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J., Donahoo, W.M., and Gay, W. 2018. Evaluation of a pre-plant fumigant and a post-plant fungicide on the control of Fusarium wilt of watermelon in Crisp County, Georgia 2016. PDMR 12:V140.

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J., Donahoo, W.M., Coolong, T., Gay, W., and Grant, J. 2018. Evaluation of a pre-plant fumigant and a post-plant fungicide on the control of Fusarium wilt of watermelon in Crisp County, Georgia 2017. PDMR 12:V142.

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J., and Donahoo, W.M. 2018. Evaluation of fungicides for managing Alternaria leaf blight on carrot, Georgia 2018. PDMR 12:V127.

Kicklighter, J., Flanders, T and Dutta, B. 2018. Evaluation of fungicides in greenhouse for the management of Alternaria leaf spot in broccoli. PDMR 12:V128.

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J. and Donahoo, W.M. 2018. Evaluation of fungicides for control of Phomopsis fruit blight, Georgia 2016. PDMR 12:V111.

Dutta, B. and Riner, C. 2018. Evaluation of fungicides to manage Botrytis leaf blight in Georgia, 2016-17. PDMR 12:V112.

Dutta, B. and Riner, C. 2018. Evaluation of fungicides to manage Botrytis leaf blight in Georgia, 2015-16. PDMR 12:V113.

Price, T., Foster, M. J. and Dutta, B. 2018. Evaluation of Fungicides on Downy Mildew of Cucumber in Cook County, Georgia, 2017. PDMR 12:V053.

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J.,  and Donahoo, W.M. 2018. Evaluation of fungicides for control of gummy stem blight on watermelon, Georgia 2017. PDMR 12:V057.

Shealey, J. Donahoo, W.M., and Dutta, B. 2018. Evaluation of biofungicide for Alternaria blight  on carrot, Georgia 2017. PDMR12:V054.

Dutta, B., Riner, C., Edenfield, J., Tyson, C., Tanner, S., Williams, Z., Shirley, A., Earls, C. 2018. Evaluation of onion growth stage specific chemical protection on center rot incidence in onion bulbs. PDMR 12:V058.

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J. and Donahoo, W.M. 2018. Evaluation of experimental nematicides for the control of root knot nematode on cucumber in Georgia, 2016. PDMR 12:N038.

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J., and Donahoo, W.M.,  Carlson, S., and Hands, J. 2018. Evaluation of ethanedinitrile (EDN) as a fumigant for the control of root knot nematode in cucumber in Georgia, 2017. PDMR 12:N036.

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J., and Donahoo, W.M. 2018. Evaluation of fungicides for control of Septoria leaf spot on tomato, Georgia 2017. PDMR 12:V066.

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J., and Donahoo, W.M. 2018. Evaluation of fungicides for control of southern blight on tomato, Georgia 2017. PDMR 12:V055.

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J., and Donahoo, W.M. 2018. Evaluation of experimental nematicides for the control of root knot nematode on tomatoes in Georgia, 2016. PDMR 12:N037.

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J., and Donahoo, W.M. 2018. Evaluation of experimental nematicides for the control of root knot nematode on cucumber in Georgia, 2017. PDMR 12:N039.

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J., and Donahoo, W.M. 2018. Evaluation of bactericides and plant defense activator for control of black rot of cabbage Georgia 2017. PDMR 12:V052.

Dutta, B., Neuman, J., and Foster, M. J. 2017. Evaluation of fungicides for control of southern    blight on tomato, Georgia 2016. PDMR 11:V019.

Dutta, B., Riner, C., Neuman, J., and Foster, M.J. 2017. Evaluation of fungicides and spray programs for control of Botrytis leaf blight of onion in Georgia, 2016. PDMR 11:V020.

Price, T and Dutta, B. 2017. Evaluation of Fungicides on Downy Mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) of Watermelon in Georgia, 2015. PDMR 11:V070.

Dutta, B., Gay, W. H., and Foster, M. J. 2017. Evaluation of fungicides for control of anthracnose on watermelon, Georgia 2016. PDMR 11:V071.

Dutta, B., Neuman, J., and Foster, M. J. 2017. Evaluation of fungicides and spray programs for the control of down mildew on cucumber in Georgia, 2015. PDMR 11:V115.

Dutta, B and Foster, M. J. 2017. Evaluation of fungicides for control of powdery mildew on squash, Georgia 2016. PDMR 11:V018.

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J., and Donahoo, W.M. 2017. Evaluation of fungicides and spray programs for the control of down mildew on cucumber in Georgia, 2015. PDMR 11:V150..

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J., and Donahoo, W.M. 2017. Evaluation of bactericides and plant defense activator for control of bacterial spot on pepper, Georgia 2016. PDMR 11:V151.

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J., and Donahoo, W.M. 2017. Evaluation of fungicides for control of southern blight on tomato, Georgia 2015. PDMR 11:V157.

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J., and Donahoo, W.M. 2017. Evaluation of biofungicide and chemical fungicides for control of powdery mildew on squash, Georgia 2015. PDMR 11:V140.

Dutta, B., Foster, M. J., and Donahoo, W.M. 2017 Evaluation of fungicides for control of powdery mildew on squash, Georgia 2015. PDMR11:V152.

Coolong, T., Dutta, B., and Sander, F.H. 2017. Evaluation of yield and downy mildew resistance in cucumber in Georgia, 2014. PDMR 11:V149.

Coolong, T., and Dutta, B. 2017. Evaluation of yield and black rot resistance in kale in Georgia, 2015. PDMR11:V158.

Dutta, B., Neuman, J., and Foster, M. J. 2017. Evaluation of fungicides for control of southern blight on tomato, Georgia 2016. PDMR 11:V019.

Dutta, B., Riner, C., Neuman, J., and Foster, M.J. 2017. Evaluation of fungicides and spray programs for control of Botrytis leaf blight of onion in Georgia, 2016. PDMR 11:V020.

Book Chapters

Dutta, B. Cichorii seedling blight. In: Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases. Eds. A. Kenaith, and T. A. Zitter. (in press). APS Press.

Dutta, B. Syringae blight and leaf spot. In: Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases. Eds. A. Kenaith, and T. A. Zitter. (in press). APS Press.

Dutta, B. Viridiflava blight and white spots. In: Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases. Eds. A. Kenaith, and T. A. Zitter. (in press). APS Press.

Extension Bulletins

Dutta, B., Coolong, T.,  and Sparks, A. 2018. Commercial production of watermelons and specialty melons for Myanmar. USAID/WINROCK Extension Bulletin (in press; international extension bulletin).

Dutta, B., Myers, B., Coolong, T. W., Srinivasan, T., and Sparks, A. 2018 Whitefly-Transmitted Plant Viruses in Southern Georgia. University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Bulletin B1507.

Dutta, B., Coolong, T. W., and Searcy, J. V. 2018. Fusarium wilt of watermelon in Georgia. University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Bulletin B1485.

Dutta, B., Coolong, T., Sparks, A., Hajihassani, A., and Culpepper, S. 2018. Sweetpotato production and pest management in Georgia. University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Bulletin B1489. (Awarded Blue Ribbon for Extension Publication by the Southern Region American Society of Horticultural Science)

Riley, D., Coolong, T., Gitaitis, R.D., Dutta, B., Sparks, A., Grey, T., Schmidt, J., Fonsah, E. G. 2017. Crop profile for Cowpea in GA. University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Bulletin B1480.

Boyhan, G.E., Culpepper, A.S., Fonsah, E.G., Sparks, A., Coolong, T., Dutta, B., Riley, D.G., Hurst, W. 2017. Onion production guide. University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Bulletin B1198.

Little, E., Brannen, P., Dutta, B., Williams-Woodward, J., Kemerait, R. C., Brock, J. H., Jagdale, G. B. 2017. 2015 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates. University of Georgia Cooperative Annual Publication 102-8.

Coolong, T., Sparks, S., and Dutta, B. 2016. Fresh Market Broccoli Production in Georgia. University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Bulletin B1460. (Awarded Blue Ribbon for Extension Publication by the Southern Region American Society of Horticultural Science).